Meniscus tear is one of the most common injury of knee. Sometimes people think the injury will heal by itself over time; but the truth is that some tears won’t heal without treatment.
There are different types of meniscus tear found in medical science:
- Radial Tear
- Horizontal Tear
- Incomplete Tear
- Complex Tear
- Flap Tear
- Bucket Handle Tear
A sudden pivot or turn, deep squatting, or heavy lifting can lead to injury. Many athletes are at risk for a meniscus tear.
Sports that require sudden turns and stops may put you at higher risk for meniscus tears. Some of these sports include:
The meniscus weakens with age. Tears are more common in people over the age of 30. Movements like squatting or stepping can lead to injury in someone with weak menisci.
If you have osteoarthritis, you’re at higher risk of injuring your knee or tearing your meniscus. Osteoarthritis is a common joint disorder involving pain and stiffness in joints caused by aging and wear and tear.
The following signs and symptoms might have seen in patient’s knee:
- A popping sensation;
- Pain, especially when twisting or rotating knee joint;
- Difficulty in straightening knee in full range;
- Feeling as knee is locked in place when try to move it.
- X-Ray: This test won’t show a meniscus tear. However, it can be helpful to determine if there are any other causes of your knee pain, like osteoarthritis.
- MRI: An MRI uses a magnetic field to take multiple images of your knee. An MRI will be able to take pictures of cartilage and ligaments to determine if there’s a meniscus tear.
- Ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to take images inside the body. This will determine if you have any loose cartilage that may be getting caught in your knee.
- Physical examination: McMurray test.
Initially, you should treat the knee injury with conservative techniques that include rest, ice, compression, and elevation, or the RICE method:
- Rest your knee. Use crutches to avoid any weight bearing on the joint. Avoid any activities that worsen your knee pain.
- Ice your knee every three to four hours for 30 minutes.
- Compress or wrap the knee in an elastic bandage to reduce inflammation.
- Elevate your knee to reduce swelling.
In chronic condition patient must concern with a physiotherapist for better solution. A physiotherapist will apply two types of treatments. They are:
- Sit on the ground with the feet straight out in front.
- Take the towel and wrap it around the toes on one foot.
- Gently pull back until a stretch runs from the bottom of the foot up to the back of the lower leg.
- Hold this stretch for 30–60 seconds.
- Switch to the other leg and repeat.
Patient may role out a towel or soft ball (size: as block the knee gape). Place it below the knee. Than press the knee and hold for minimum 10 seconds
Straight leg raise
- While lying on your back, bend one leg while extending the other straight in front of you. It can apply with sitting on a chair.
- Tighten the muscles on your leg and slowly lift your straight leg.
- Hold your leg about a foot off of the floor and squeeze for 3-5 seconds.
- Slowly lower your leg to the floor.
- Repeat with the other leg.
Another Isometric Exercise:
1: UST- It is a sound wave which passes through in deep tissues and also makes a resonance that increase blood circulation and release pain.
2: TENS- Electromagnetic wave that helps to reduce pain.
3: HIL- Helps in deep penetration and reduce pain.