Naturally, human spine has unique curvature in different region which is important for their activities. About 2-3 % of people’s spine curvature is different from the natural one and spinal deformity is formed. Scoliosis is one of them. Scoliosis is abnormal sideway curvature of spine. The curve is generally S or C shaped over 3 dimensions. It most commonly occurs between the ages of 10 and 20. Female is more affected.
Reasons for scoliosis:
According to “American Association of Neurological Surgeons”, 10% are neuromuscular, 15% are congenital and 65% is the idiopathic cause of scoliosis. Injury or infection is another reason for scoliosis.
Types of Scoliosis:
Idiopathic Scoliosis- The reasons are mainly unknown
Congenital Scoliosis-This is a rare condition and it begins at birth.
Neuromuscular Scoliosis-The condition caused by other disorders like spina bifida, cerebral palsy or spinal cord injury.
Degenerative Scoliosis-The condition usually develops at older age.
Sign and symptoms:
Generally, most of the scoliosis is mild but sometimes the deformities get more severe as the child grows and lead disability.
Pain in back, shoulder, neck and buttock
Prominent shoulder blade
Restricted Physical activity
Confirmed diagnosis of Scoliosis is X-ray, MRI
Treatment depends on age of patient, sex, family history, degree of curves and location. Some factors related to effectiveness of treatment .They are-
Age-The treatment of child is more effective than adult or teenager.
Curve of spine-‘S’ shaped curves or double curve is more worse than ‘c’ shaped curve
Location of Curve– Thoracic curve is worse than others
Although the effectiveness of treatment for scoliosis is very minimal and has many side effect but scoliosis patient require to remain under observation of doctor to prevent further progress.
Treatment of scoliosis includes-
Surgery: patient with early onset scoliosis under the age of 10 years, are offered surgical treatment when the major curvature progressive (Cobb angle is 50° or more)
The Schroth Method is a nonsurgical approach for scoliosis treatment. The goal of this method is to lengthen and stabilize the spine. Typically, the Schroth Method includes-
Muscular Symmetry Restoration
Posture Alignment Restoration
Electrical Stimulation is used to reduce the pain, re-educate and strengthen the muscle.
Aim of Scoliosis brace is to slow or stop progression of the spinal curvature caused by scoliosis. Rigid braces put pressure on your spine in several places to help prevent it from curving more than it already has. Dynamic braces slow curve progression by retraining your body into maintaining a corrective posture.
Sometime people don’t notice or unconscious about their problem and in future they have to face different complications like breathing difficulty, cardio respiratory problem ,Musculo skeletal deformity, neuropathy etc. We know scoliosis is not curable but manageable disease. So, if we are aware from the beginning and under proper treatment, we can prevent further complications and lead a normal daily life.
Rebeka is a Registered Physiotherapist with degrees from BPT, Faculty of Medicine, DU (NITOR),Pediatric physiotherapy(BCCW), Tapping in Orthopaedic and Sports injury, Physiotherapy and corporate Health. She has worked in a variety of settings, encompassing Orthopaedics, Neurology,Pediatrics, Geriatric,Sports and Gynaecology Physiotherapy through Mayfair Wellness Clinic.